Thursday, December 31, 2009

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Monday, December 28, 2009

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MA Chidambaram Stadium

The airy home of candid in the accompaniment back the alpha of the Presidency matches in 1916, the MA Chidambaram Stadium, acclaimed for its antic pitches. Better accepted as Chepauk, taken from the breadth of its existence, the aboriginal Assay played actuality was in 1933-34 amid Douglas Jardine's England and CK Nayudu's India. For long, Assay matches at Chepauk were alike with the Pongal (Harvest) festival. There accept been annal abounding at this venue. History was fabricated with the aboriginal anytime Ranji Trophy bout played at the area back AG Ram Singh, with 11 wickets, bowled Madras to achievement over Mysore aural a day. India recorded their aboriginal Assay win at the arena in 1951-52 back they defeated England by an innings and eight runs. Sunil Gavaskar alveolate up his almanac breaking 30th Assay hundred on this arena in 1983-84. The amphitheater witnessed history back alone the additional angry assay was played actuality amid India and Australia in 1986, which included Dean Jones authoritative a ballsy 210, Greg Matthews demography 10 wickets and Kapil Dev scoring an accomplished century. The abutting season, leg spinner Narendra Hirwani claimed the best bout assay by a amateur on Assay debut, finishing with 16 for 136.
But added than the records, what stands out at Chepauk is the atmosphere and the crowd, accounted to be the best abreast and beholden in the country. This was accepted back those present gave a continuing acclaim to Saeed Anwar afterwards his almanac breaking 194 adjoin India in the Independence Cup bout in 1997. The amphitheater additionally witnessed affecting scenes back 50,000 admirers gave a continuing acclaim to the Pakistan candid aggregation in January 1999 afterwards achievement in a actual carefully fought assay match. A absolutely afflicted Pakistani aggregation alike fabricated a lap of honour in acknowledgment of the spectators' antic behaviour.

Friday, December 25, 2009

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Thursday, December 24, 2009

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Tuesday, December 22, 2009

Ajanta Caves

The caves are in a abounding and asperous horseshoe-shaped abyss about 3½ km from the apple of Ajantha. It is anchored in the Aurangābād commune of Maharashtra State in India (106 kilometers abroad from the burghal of Aurangabad). The abutting towns are Sillod (30 kilometers away), Jalgaon (60 kilometers away) and Bhusawal (70 kilometers away). Along the basal of the abyss runs the river Waghur, a abundance stream. There are 29 caves (as clearly numbered by the Archaeological Survey of India), biconcave in the south ancillary of the abrupt bluff fabricated by the acid of the ravine. They alter from 35 to 110 ft (34 m) in acclivity aloft the bed of the stream.

The apostolic circuitous of Ajanta consists of several viharas (monastic halls of residence) and chaitya-grihas (stupa cairn halls) cut into the abundance bluff in two phases. The aboriginal appearance is afield alleged the Hinayana appearance (referring to the Lesser Vehicle attitude of Buddhism, aback the Buddha was admired symbolically). Actually, Hinayana – a abasing appellation for Sthaviravada – does not article to Buddha statues. At Ajanta, cavern numbers 9, 10, 12, 13, and 15A (the aftermost one was re-discovered in 1956, and is still not clearly numbered) were biconcave during this phase. These excavations accept anointed the Buddha in the anatomy of the stupa, or mound.

The additional appearance of blasting at the armpit began afterwards a abeyance of over three centuries. This appearance is generally afield alleged the Mahayana appearance (referring to the Greater Vehicle attitude of Buddhism, which is beneath austere and encourages absolute cow delineation of the Buddha through paintings and carvings). Some adopt to alarm this appearance the Vakataka appearance afterwards the cardinal absolutism of the abode of the Vakatakas of the Vatsagulma branch. The dating of the additional appearance has been debated amid scholars. In contempo years a accord seems to be advancing on 5th-century dates for all the Mahayana or Vakataka appearance caves. According to Walter M. Spink, a arch Ajantologist, all the Mahayana excavations were agitated out from 462 to 480 CE. The caves created during the Mahayana appearance are the ones numbered 1-8, 11, and 14-29. Cavern 8 was continued anticipation to be a Hinayāna cave, about accepted analysis shows that it is in actuality a Mahayana cave.

There were two chaitya-grihas biconcave in the Hinayana appearance that are caves 9 and 10. Caves 12, 13, and 15A of this appearance are vihāras. There were three chaitya-grihas biconcave in the Vakataka or Mahayana appearance that are caves 19, 26, and 29. The aftermost cavern was alone anon afterwards its beginning. The blow of the excavations are viharas: caves 1-3, 5-8, 11, 14-18, 20-25, and 27-28.

The viharas are of assorted sizes the best actuality about 52 anxiety (16 m). They are generally square-shaped. Their blasting exhibits a abundant variety, some with simple facade, others ornate; some accept a balustrade and others do not. The anteroom was an capital aspect of a viharas. In the Vakataka phase, aboriginal viharas were not advised to accept shrines because they were absolutely meant to be halls of abode and congregation. Later, shrines were alien in them in the aback walls, which became a norm. The shrines were fabricated to abode the axial article of admiration that is the angel of the Buddha generally built-in in the dharmachakrapravartana mudra (the action of teaching). In the caves with most recent features, we acquisition accessory shrines added on the ancillary walls, balustrade or the front-court. The facades of abounding vihāras are busy with carvings, and walls and ceilings were generally covered with paintings.

Changes in Buddhist anticipation in the 1st aeon BCE had fabricated it accessible for the Buddha to be deified and appropriately the angel of the Buddha as a focus of adoration became popular, appearance the accession of the Mahāyāna (the Greater Vehicle) sect.

In the past, advisers disconnected the caves in three groups, but this is now discredited in ablaze of beginning affirmation and research. This approach of dating believed that the oldest accumulation of caves anachronous from 200 BCE to CE 200, the additional accumulation belonged, approximately, to the 6th, and the third accumulation to the 7th century.

The announcement Cavern Temples acclimated by Anglo-Indians for viharas after the altar is inaccurate. Ajanta was a affectionate of academy monastery. Hsuan Tsang informs us that Dinnaga, the acclaimed Buddhist philosopher and controversialist, columnist of acclaimed books on logic, resided there. This, however, charcoal to be corroborated by added evidence. In their prime the vihāras were advised to allow adaptation for several hundreds, agents and pupils combined. It is adverse that none of the caves in the Vakataka appearance were anytime absolutely completed. This was because the cardinal Vakataka absolutism aback fell out of ability abrogation the ascendancy in a acceptable crisis, which affected all activities to a abrupt arrest at the time of Ajanta's aftermost years of activities. This abstraction aboriginal arresting by Walter M. Spink is more accepting accepting based on the archaeological affirmation arresting on site.

Most of the capacity accept been articular by the arch Ajantologist from Germany, Dieter Schlingloff.

Intrestig place in Thanjavur

Thanjavur is acclaimed for the Brahadishwara Temple (or Brahadeeswara temple) congenital by Rajaraja Chola during the 11th century. The Brahadishwara Temple, additionally accepted as the Big Temple, is one of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The temple is amid in two courts, baffled by a aerial belfry and including the alluringly busy altar of Murugan. Amid the added celebrated barrio is the Vijayanagara fort, which contains a alcazar that was broadcast by the Maratha baron Serfoji II with an armoury, a Bell Belfry and the Saraswathi Mahal Library, which contains over 30,000 Indian and European manuscripts accounting on approach blade and paper. Additionally congenital by Serfoji II is the Manora Fort, a awe-inspiring tower, anchored about 65 km abroad from Thanjavur. The again "Sangeetha Mahal" has been adapted to a handicrafts exhibition centre now which has handicrafts from bounded artisans. Raja Rajan Manimandapam which is additionally one amid the day-tripper places in Thanjavur, Thanjavur is in the additional abode abutting alone to Chennai in alluring added tourists

Thanjavur is one of the arch political, arcane and religious centres of southern India, accepted for its addition to Carnatic music, it has produced abounding classical musicians and Bharathanatyam dancers. It has become the additional best important armpit for the anniversary Natyanjali ball festival.

Tiruvaiyaru, which is abutting to Thanjavur, is the abode area the abundant artist Saint Tyagaraja lived. Here in Tiruvaiyaru every year in the Tamil ages of 'Thai' (second bisected of January) Thyagaraja Aradhana will be captivated area musicians from all over the country will participate.

Tanjore is able-bodied accepted for brownish sculptures and its different painting appearance alleged Tanjore Painting, a bang apparatus alleged the Thavil, a all-powerful classical cord apparatus Veenai and the Bobblehead Thanjavur Dolls.


Thanjavur additionally accepted by its anglicised name Tanjore, is a burghal and the address of the Thanjavur commune in the Indian accompaniment of Tamil Nadu. It has a citizenry of a 221,185 (2001 census).

The name Thanjavur is acquired from "Tanjan", a allegorical asura in Hindu mythology. Thanjavur is one of the oldest cities in India and has a continued and assorted history dating aback to Sangam period. The burghal rose into bulge during the aphorism of the Later Cholas back it served as the basic of the Chola empire. After the abatement of the Cholas, the burghal was disqualified by the Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, the Madurai Nayaks, the Thanjavur Nayaks, the Thanjavur Marathas and the British. It has been a allotment of absolute India back 1947.

Thanjavur is an important centermost of South Indian art and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, an UNESCO World Ancestry Monument are amid in an about Thanjavur. The foremost amid the Great Living Chola temples, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is amid in the centermost of the town. Thanjavur is additionally the home of the Tanjore painting, a painting appearance different to the region. The boondocks is an important agronomical centermost amid at the affection of the region, accepted as the "rice basin of Tamil Nadu". South Zone Culture Centre in Thanjavur is one of abounding bounded cultural centres accustomed by Indian Government to bottle and advance acceptable cultural ancestry of India.

Thanjavur is well-connected by anchorage and railways with added genitalia of India and with cities and towns in Tamil Nadu. The abutting airport is Tiruchirapalli amid at a ambit of 56 kilometres and the abutting anchorage in Nagapattinam which is 84 kilometres from Thanjavur.

Feroz Shah Kotla

Feroz Shah Kotla was originally a fort by Sultan Ferozshah Tughlaq to abode his adaptation of Delhi burghal alleged Ferozabad. A aboriginal able sandstone colonnade from the 3rd aeon B.C. rises from the palace's crumbling remains, one of abounding pillars larboard by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka; it was confused from Punjab and re-erected in its accepted area in 1356.
The Feroz Shah Kotla now serves as a candid ground. The aboriginal bout was played on November 10, 1948. Anil Kumble took 10 wickets in an inning on this arena in 1999, alone the additional time this accomplishment has been accomplished in analysis cricket. It underwent renovations in 2005. It is endemic by the DDCA (Delhi District Candid Association). Since 2008 the amphitheater has been the home area of the Delhi DareDevils of the Indian Premier League. It afresh hosted matches of champions alliance t20.
On 27 December 2009 Final bout amid India and Srilanka alleged off because angle altitude were not not fit abundant to host the match.
Another amphitheater is actuality planned by the DDCA that is actuality congenital in the Yamuna Basin. Its accommodation has been added to about 40,000. Floodlights accept additionally been included. With the fresh renovations, it has become one of India's finest candid stadiums.

Monday, December 21, 2009

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Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh has a affluent cultural ancestry and a array of day-tripper attractions. The accompaniment of Andhra Pradesh comprises breathtaking hills, forests, beaches and temples.

Also accepted as The City of Nizams and The City of Pearls, Hyderabad is today one of the best developed cities in the country and a avant-garde hub of advice technology, ITES, and biotechnology. Hyderabad is accepted for its affluent history, ability and architectonics apery its different appearance as a affair point for North and South India, and additionally its multilingual culture, both geographically and culturally.

Andhra Pradesh is the home of abounding religious crude centres. Tirupati, the address of Lord Venkateswara, is the richest and best visited religious centermost (of any faith) in the world. Srisailam, the address of Sri Mallikarjuna, is one of twelve Jyothirlingalu in India, Amaravati's Siva temple is one of the Pancharamams, and Yadagirigutta, the address of an avatara of Vishnu, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha. The Ramappa temple and Thousand Pillars temple in Warangal are acclaimed for some accomplished temple carvings. The accompaniment has abundant Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda, Bhattiprolu, Ghantasala, Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Bavikonda, Thotlakonda, Shalihundam, Pavuralakonda, Sankaram, Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.

The aureate beaches at Visakhapatnam, the one-million-year old limestone caves at Borra, arresting Araku Valley, acropolis resorts of Horsley Hills, river Godavari antagonism through a attenuated gorge at Papi Kondalu, waterfalls at Ettipotala, Kuntala and affluent bio-diversity at Talakona, are some of the accustomed attractions of the state. Visakhapatnam is home to abounding day-tripper attactions such as the INS Karasura Submarine building (The alone one of its affectionate in India), Yarada Beach, Araku Valley, VUDA Park, Indira Gandhi Zoological Gardens.

The acclimate in Andhra Pradesh is mostly close and the best time to appointment is in November through to January. The cloudburst division commences in June and ends in September, so biking would not be appropriate during this period.

Eden Gardens

The Eden Gardens is India's better candid stadium, and one of the best acclaimed candid venues in the world. Established in 1864, Eden Gardens currently holds 90,000 bodies afterward renovations, which accept bargain the accommodation from its antecedent one of 120,000. Nevertheless, it charcoal collective 22nd with Wembley Amphitheater in the account of better stadiums in the world. It is additionally the additional better candid amphitheater in the world, abaft the Melbourne Candid Ground. It is additionally the additional better amphitheater in India abaft the Salt Lake Stadium.
The amphitheater is amid in the Dalhousie breadth of the city, abreast the State Secretariat and the High Court. The aboriginal recorded Test at the breadth was captivated in 1934, and its aboriginal ODI in 1987 Sporting floodlights, bowlers bear from the High Court End or the Pavilion End of a angle beneath babysitter Probir Mukherjee. The arena breadth of the amphitheater is additionally one of the better in the world.
The amphitheater is acclaimed for its ample and boisterous crowds. It is said that "a cricketer's cricketing apprenticeship is not complete till he has played in advanced of a arranged Eden Gardens." Reference NeededThe Club House of the amphitheater has been called as the B.C. Roy Club House, afterwards above Chief Minister of the State of West Bengal Dr. B. C. Roy. The Headquarters of the Candid Association of Bengal are additionally there at the Eden Gardens.
The amphitheater hosted its aboriginal Indian Premier League bout on April 20, 2008, back the Kolkata Knight Riders took on the Deccan Chargers
The amphitheater is ability renovations which will abate the basement accommodation by 14,500 seats to 73,000 from the accepted 90,000. These renovations are demography abode in adjustment to accommodate the amphitheater with the minimum abilities appropriate to authority the semi-finals in the 2011 Candid Apple Cup
The affairs for advance accept been awarded to two companies, one from Ahmedabad and one from USA.

Sunday, December 20, 2009

Bombay Gymkhana

established in 1875, is one of the premiere gymkhanas (sports arena) in the burghal of Mumbai, India. It is amid in the South Mumbai breadth and was originally congenital as a British-only club, advised by English architect, Claude Batley.
The Gymkhana Area lie in the southern end of the Azad Maidan. The arena itself is on busy property. It has a triangular area, with the southern end adverse the VSNL building. MG Road and H Somal Marg are the two anchorage on either end that activate from the southern end. It is boxed in by a adjustment lane which connects Churchgate to Victoria Terminus.
Inside the Bombay GymkhanaA continued architecture which serves as the lobby, table tennis area, badminton court, restaurant and lounge connects the two roads. The arena amid the architecture and the lane is a ample ground. It is actual difficult to get associates into this absolute club.
Cricket is played actuality in the winter months, and rugby and football (soccer) in the cloudburst months. This acclimated to be above centre for the bygone Bombay Pentangular candid matches. The arena had the acumen of hosting India's aboriginal Test candid bout on 15 December 1933, captained by CK Nayudu. Many of the matches of the long-running Bombay Quadrangular affray were additionally captivated there. It hasn't hosted any all-embracing candid matches back the Brabourne Stadium took its abode in 1948. The aftermost all-embracing accident of some array was in 1996 back the Australian candid aggregation acclimated the area to convenance above-mentioned to their affray with India in the 1996 Candid World Cup.
The arena additionally hosts a civic rugby competition, and has afresh hosted matches adjoin Sri Lanka and a few added South Asian teams. It has additionally hosted civic and all-embracing annihilate tournaments.
It additionally has pond accessories at the southern end.
Until a few years ago, alone men could accretion associates to the club. Women were able to accompany from the aboriginal 2000s.
The Bombay Gymkhana is one of the best absolute clubs in the city: the cat-and-mouse aeon for associates extends into years, and the fees are in the millions of rupees.

Sunday, December 13, 2009


Lucknow and biryani accept an about accommodating relationship. The Lucknow (Awadhi) biryani is the brand that the Muslims of the Mughal Empire larboard on the eastern allotment of India. It originated in the apple 'Bare Next' and although it originated in the North, Virani Biryani has additionally best up flavors of the South. The Awadhi Biryani is additionally accepted as "Pukka" Biryani as the rice and meat are adapted alone and again layered.

Non-vegetarian Hyderabadi biryani is savored in all genitalia of India and forms an basic allotment of Indian cuisine. The Nizam's kitchen boasted of 49 kinds, which included biryani fabricated from fish, quail, shrimp, deer and hare. The Hyderabadi Biryani is alleged the "Kaccha" Biryani as both the marinated meat and the rice are adapted together.

The Calcutta or Kolkata biryani acquired from the Lucknow appearance back Wajid Ali Shah, the aftermost nawab of Awadh was adopted in 1856 to the Kolkata suburb of Metiabruz.[2] Back the biryani entered poorer homes in the burghal that could not allow meat, at atomic on a approved basis, the meat was replaced by potatoes. Now the use of potatoes has become a audible affection of the Calcutta biryani as an added additive forth with the meat

In Iran, this bowl is fabricated in Isfahan with broiled mutton and lung that is broiled again minced alone and again broiled in appropriate baby annular bank pans in the oven or over the fire. The burgers are about served, with delicate cinnamon, in a bounded bread, usually "nan-e taftoon" but additionally sometimes "nan-e sangak".

In its added aboriginal form, the bowl is accepted with the accepted name of "Dam Pukht/ Dan-pukhtak". The admixture in Persian agency "steam-cooked"--a advertence to the aflame rice that forms the base of the dish. This name is still in accepted use in Iran besides "biryani". In Southeast Asian countries such as Burma/Myanmar this older, accepted Persian appellation is in accepted use as "'danpauk' (see below)

Nellaiappar Temple

Nellaiappar Temple is one of the acclaimed Shiva Temple anchored in the affection of the Tirunelveli City, Tamil Nadu, India. One of the acclaimed temples in Tamil Nadu steeped in attitude and history and additionally accepted for its agreeable pillars and added ablaze sculptural splendours. This is the aboriginal better Shiva Temple in Tamil Nadu[1]. This temple houses a altar to Shiva and Parvati dating aback in time accoutrement a 14 acre area. Shiva is said to accept been admirable by Agastya in a bamboo bracken and by Rama afterwards accepting dead Mareecha some nine afar abroad at Manoor. There is additionally a altar to Vishnu abreast the sanctum, blame the acceptance that Nellai Govindan (Vishnu) visited Tirunelveli to officiate the all-powerful alliance of Shiva and Kantimathi. There are several added legends associated with this temple.

Near Tirunelveli, are the nine Vaishnavite temples committed to Vishnu (the Alwar Nava Tiruppatis), the Krishnapuram Venkatachalapati temple with its ablaze sculptural work, Tiruchendur with its admirable and arty temple committed to Subramanya, and Kutralam a accepted day-tripper resort with its absorbing waterfalls and abundand accustomed beauty. The arena amid Tirunelveli and Kutralam abounds in accustomed splendour. Mention charge be fabricated of Tenkasi, Papanasam and Ambasamudram. Further, Kanyakumari the Southernmost tip of India is alone a brace of hours abroad from Tirunelveli.

Antiquity: The temple dates aback to 700 AD and has been articulate by the Saivite saint Tirugnana sambandar. Allegedly there were two audible temples for Shiva and his accompaniment both congenital by the Pandyan kings and the Sangili Mandapam bond these two were congenital in the 17th centuries. The building additionally date aback to aboriginal 17th century. There are inscriptions dating all the way aback to 950 AD in the temple.

Architecture: All-inclusive in area, this temple never ceases to abruptness visitors for the abundance of detail it has to offer. The agreeable pillars in the Mani Mandapam which aftermath complete in assorted pitches back addled (7th aeon AD by Nindrasir Nedumaran or Koon Pandyan), the Somavara Mandapam, the 1000 pillared hall, and the Tamra sabha with intricate copse work, and the Vasantha Mandapam are some of the noteworthy credibility in this temple. Lifelike sculptures beautify several of the mandapams in the temple, noteworthy ones actuality in the Sangili Mandapam which links the temples of Nellaiappar and Kantimathi in this all-inclusive temple complex.

Tamra Sabhai: The Copper Anteroom of Dance is a ablaze assignment of art, and is housed aural the close precincts of the temple. On the break of Arudra Darisanam (occurring in the Tamil ages of Margazhi - Dec 15 - Jan 15), the images of Nataraja and Sivakami are housed here, and busy adoration protocols are empiric during the achievement of the Cosmic Dance of Shiva. A altar to Sandana Sabhapati (adorned with sandal paste) is amid appropriate abaft the Tamra Sabha and to a company walking appear the Tamra Sabha, the aggregate of these, i.e. the eyes of Sandana Sabhapati apparent through the Tamra Sabha presents a ablaze spectacle. There is yet addition altar to Nataraja here, the Periya Sabhapati shrine. Religious casework are agitated out actuality on appropriate occasions, and this anniversary idol is never confused from this shrine.

Other: Navaratri, Tirukkalyanam in Aippasi, (Oct 15 - Nov 15) and Arudra Darisanam are some of the important festivals here. Arudra Darisanam attracts huge crowds here.The temple charriot is a massive one, additional allegedly alone to Tiruvarur. The Bhrammotsavam actuality lasts for an continued aeon of time during the Tamil ages of Aani (June 15 - July 15). Also, a Golden Temple car (First Inaugural run of Nellaiappar Temple Golden Car is November 2, 2009) will run during important festivals like Thirukalyanam, Kaarthigai, Aaruthra Anniversary etc

Saturday, December 12, 2009

South India 1

Southern India, additionally accepted as the Dravida in the Indian anthem, is the breadth encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as able-bodied as the abutment territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry, application 19.31% of India's area. South India lies in the peninsular Deccan Plateau and is belted by the Arabian Sea in the west, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The cartography of the arena is diverse, encompassing two abundance ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, and a plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra and Kaveri rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Inhabitants of South India are referred to as South Indians. A majority of South Indians allege one of the bristles Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tulu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam. During its history, a cardinal of dynastic kingdoms disqualified over genitalia of South India whose invasions beyond southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and cultures of avant-garde nation-states such as Sri Lanka, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. The arena was colonised by Britain and gradually congenital into the British Empire.

After experiencing fluctuations in the decades anon afterwards Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states accept registered college than civic boilerplate advance over the accomplished three decades. While South Indian states accept bigger in some socio-economic metrices, bread-and-butter disparity, benightedness and abjection abide to affect the arena abundant like the blow of the country. Agriculture is the distinct better contributor to the bounded net calm product, while Information technology is a rapidly growing industry. Literary and architectural styles, acquired over two thousand years, alter from added genitalia of the country. Politics in South India is bedeviled by abate bounded political parties rather than by civic political parties.

Wednesday, December 2, 2009

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

There are 572 islands in the territory, of which alone about 38 are assuredly inhabited. Most of the islands (about 550) are in the Andamans group, 26 of which are inhabited. The abate Nicobars comprise some 22 capital islands (10 inhabited). The Andamans and Nicobars are afar by a approach (the Ten Degree Channel) some 150 km wide.

The absolute breadth of the Andaman Islands is some 6,408 km2 (2,474 sq mi); that of the Nicobar Islands about 1,841 km2 (711 sq mi).

Andaman & Nicobar Islands are adored with a different close rainforest canopy, fabricated of a alloyed flora with elements from Indian, Myanmarese, Malaysian and ancient floral strains. So far, about 2,200 varieties of plants accept been recorded, out of which 200 are ancient and 1,300 do not action in acreage India.

The South Andaman forests accept a abounding advance of epiphytic vegetation, mostly ferns and orchids. The Middle Andamans harbours mostly clammy deciduous forests. Arctic Andamans is characterised by the wet beloved type, with affluence of coarse climbers. The arctic Nicobar Islands (including Car Nicobar and Battimalv) are apparent by the complete absence of beloved forests, while such forests anatomy the ascendant frondescence in the axial and southern islands of the Nicobar group. Grasslands action alone in the Nicobars, and while deciduous fore=sts are accepted in the Andamans, they are about absent in the Nicobars. The present backwoods advantage is claimed to be 86.2% of the absolute acreage area.

Tuesday, December 1, 2009

Bay of Bengal

The Bay of Bengal occupies an breadth of 2,172,000 km². A cardinal of ample rivers – Padma (distributary of Ganges), Meghna (distributary of Brahmaputra), Jamuna (branch of Brahmaputra, Ayeyarwady, Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna and Kaveri – breeze into the Bay of Bengal. Among the important ports are Cuddalore, Chennai, Kakinada, Tuticorin, Machilipatnam, Vishakapatnam, Paradip, Kolkata, Mongla, Chittagong and Yangon.

Many above rivers of India and Bangladesh breeze west to east into the Bay of Bengal: in the north, the Ganges River (or Ganga), Meghna River and Brahmaputra River rivers, and in the south Mahanadi River through the Mahanadi River Delta, Godavari River, Krishna River, Irrawaddy and Kaveri River (sometimes accounting as Cauvery) rivers. The beeline classified river which drains into the Bay of Bengal is Cooum River at 64 km. Brahmaputra is the 28th longest River in the World (2,948 km or 1,832 mi), and it discharges into the 'Bay of Bengal' and campaign through India, P.R. China, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan. The Sundarbans mangrove backwoods is formed at the basin of the Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers on the Bay of Bengal. The Ayeyarwady River of Myanmar additionally flows into the bay.


The history of Kanchi can be traced aback to several centuries afore the appearance of the Christian era. The abode finds its name in Patanjali's Mahabhashya, accounting in the additional aeon B.C. Manimekalai, the acclaimed Tamil classic, and Perumpanattu Padai, a abundant Tamil allegorical work, vividly call Kanchipuram city, as it was at the alpha of the Christian era. Pathupattu, one of the sangam literatures, reads that the baron Thondaiman Ilandirayan disqualified this boondocks about 2500 years ago.

Kancheepuram District had been administered by the Pallavas, Cholas, Vijayanagar rulers and the British afore Independence. It was a allotment of Tondaimandalam, a analysis of the age-old Tamil country, almost absolute the present day districts of Kancheepuram, Chennai, Tiruvallur, Vellore and Thiruvannamalai. The basic of Thondaimandalam was Kancheepuram city. From the 3rd to the 9th aeon A.D. Kanchi was the basic of the Pallavas who disqualified over the area extending from the river Krishna in the arctic to the river Kaveri in the south. The Pallavas adherent the burghal with ramparts, moats, etc., with advanced and able-bodied laid out anchorage and accomplished temples. They were a abundant amphibian ability with contacts with abroad China, Siam, Fiji, etc., through their arch Port Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram). The Cholas disqualified this arena from the 10th aeon to the 13th century. Kings of Vijayanagar absolutism disqualified from 14th aeon to 17th century.Kanchi was a above bench of Tamil acquirements as able-bodied as an important abode of crusade for Buddhists, Jains and Hindus. Kalidasa has declared it to be the best amid the cities (Nagareshu Kanchi), aloof as Jati (jasmine) is the sweetest amidst the flowers, Rambha the best admirable amidst women and Grihasthasrama the best ideal amidst the four asramas of animal life. One of the kings of Kanchi, Mahendravarman-I, was a abundant academic and musician, a man of abundant intelligence and additionally a abundant playwright. Yuan Chwang, the abundant Chinese traveler, visited Kanchipuram burghal in the 7th aeon and said that this burghal was 6 afar in ambit and that its bodies were acclaimed for courage and allegiance as able-bodied as for their adulation of amends and account for learning. He added recorded that Buddha had visited the place. As commendations learning, Kanchi stood additional in celebrity alone to Banaras. Once the bench of acquirements and religious fervour, it started its ascend bottomward with the Mughal invasions followed by three centuries of colonial aphorism beneath the British.

Friday, November 27, 2009


The temples of Mamallapuram, congenital abundantly during the reigns of Narasimhavarman and his almsman Rajasimhavarman, advertise the movement from rock-cut architectonics to structural building. The mandapa or pavilions and the rathas or shrines shaped as temple chariots are hewn from the granite bedrock face, while the acclaimed Shore Temple, erected bisected a aeon later, is congenital from dressed what makes Mamallapuram so culturally beating are the influences it absorbs and disseminates. The Shore Temple includes abounding bas reliefs including one 100 ft. continued and 45 ft. aerial carved out of granite.

All but one of the rathas from the aboriginal appearance of Pallava architectonics are modelled on the Budhist viharas or monasteries and chaitya halls with several beef abiding about a courtyard. Art historian Percy Brown, in fact, traces the accessible roots of the Pallava Mandapa to the agnate rock-cut caves of Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves. Referring to Narasimhavarman's achievement in AD 642 over the Chalukyan baron Pulakesin II, Brown says the Pallava baron may accept brought the sculptors and artisans aback to Kanchi and Mamallapuram as 'spoils of war

According to descriptions by aboriginal biking writers from Britain, the breadth abreast Mahabalipuram had seven pagodas by the sea. Accounts of Mahabalipuram were aboriginal accounting bottomward by British traveller John Goldingham who was told of the "Seven Pagodas" back he visited in 1798.
An age-old anchorage burghal and genitalia of a temple congenital in the 7th aeon may accept been baldheaded by the tsunami that resulted from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. As the after-effects gradually receded, the force of the baptize removed beach deposits that had covered assorted bouldered structures and appear carvings of animals, which included an elaborately carved arch of an albatross and a horse in flight. A baby square-shaped alcove with a carved bronze of a celestial could be apparent aloft the arch of the elephant. In addition structure, there was a carve of a collapsed lion. The use of these beastly sculptures as decorations is constant with added busy walls and temples from the Pallava aeon in the 7th and 8th centuries.

The Archaeological Survey of India beatific defined to activate underwater excavations of the breadth on 17 February 2005.

Thursday, November 26, 2009

Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram

The name “Seven Pagodas” has served as a appellation for the south Indian burghal of Mahabalipuram, additionally alleged Mamallapuram, back the aboriginal European campaign accomplished the city. The byword “Seven Pagodas” refers to a allegory that has broadcast in India, Europe, and added genitalia of the apple for over eleven centuries. Mahabalipuram’s Bank Temple, congenital in the 8th aeon CE beneath the administration of Narasimhavarman II, stands at the bank of the Bay of Bengal. Fable has it that six added temples already stood with it.

An age-old Brahman fable explains the pagodas’ origins in allegorical terms. Prince Hiranyakasipu banned to adoration the god Vishnu. The prince’s son, Prahlada, admired Vishnu greatly, and criticized his father’s abridgement of faith. Hiranyakasipu abandoned Prahlada, but again relented and accustomed him to appear home. Ancestor and son bound began to altercate about Vishu’s nature. When Prahlada declared that Vishnu was present everywhere, including in the walls of their home, his ancestor kicked a pillar. Vishnu emerged from the colonnade in the anatomy of a man with a lion’s head, and dead Hiranyakasipu. Prahlada eventually became king, and had a son alleged Bali. Bali founded Mahabalipuram on this site. (Adapted from Coombes, 23-4.)

The temples’ origins accept been blocked by time, abridgement of complete accounting records, and storytelling. Englishman D. R. Fyson, a adept citizen of Madras (now Chennai), wrote a abridged book on the burghal of Mahabalipuram blue-blooded Mahabalipuram or Seven Pagodas, which he advised as a gift aggregate for Western visitors to the city. In it, he states that the Pallava Baron Narasimharavarman I either began or abundantly continued aloft Mahabalipuram, about 630 CE (Fyson 1). Archaeological affirmation has not yet acutely accurate whether Narasimharavarman I’s burghal was the age-old to abide this location.

About 30 years above-mentioned to the founding of Narasimharavarman I’s city, Pallava Baron Mahendravarman I had amorphous a alternation of “cave temples,” which were carved into bouldered hillsides (Fyson 2). Contrary to what the name suggests, they generally did not activate as accustomed caves. Mahendravarman I and Narasimharavarman I additionally ordered architectonics of free-standing temples, alleged rathas in the region’s language, Tamil. Nine rathas currently angle at the armpit (Ramaswami, 209). Architectonics of both types of temples in Mahabalipuram appears to accept concluded about 640 CE (Fyson 3). Fyson states that archaeological affirmation supports the affirmation that a monastery, or vihara in Tamil, existed in age-old Mahabalipuram. The abstraction of the abbey would accept been adopted from practices of the region’s accomplished Buddhist inhabitants. Fyson suggests that the monks’ abode may accept been disconnected amid a cardinal of the city’s rathas, based on their analysis into baby rooms. Buddhist access is additionally credible in the acceptable pagoda appearance of the Bank Temple and added actual architectonics (Fyson 5).

Wednesday, November 25, 2009


The sites are: The Ayyanar and Kali Temple amid two kilometers from the present adjustment with its own ‘drinking water’ pond. The temple and the pond are preserved by the villagers for the anniversary festival. The banyan copse abutting the temple are accounted to accept cloistral armies and now they apartment the celebratory crowds during the anniversary festivals of the temple. They are alluring comedy breadth for the accouchement who beat from their different accessory blind roots, which additionally bolster the timberline by growing into backup trunks of the tree.

The ample baptize pond acclimated by the boondocks for a pond basin was deepened in the 1970s. Aback its attic was dug up, tens of mudhumakkal Thazhis (burial urns) were appear with earthen lamps and bistro accoutrement in the acceptance that the asleep may acquisition ablaze and aliment in their afterlife. Such finds are archaeological affirmation of age-old cultures and their community of ambidextrous with the actual old and the dead. The locals, blind of the accent of their ‘excavation’, covered the site, with due admiration to the dead.

The Pallivasal (Tamil for a abbey or madarasa) abreast the Kuttivila grove, about a kilometer to the east of the village, breadth the Paramakudi-Mudukulathur Road passes through). The fable refers to the armpit as a abbey or madarasa. The armpit has a bracken of Kuttivila trees, which are advised to be angelic by the bounded association and preserved, alike from the accouchement who get analytical to analyze the copse and backbone the Kuttivila fruits, which is candied aback ripe.

The acumen and the aptitude of the villagers in attention and attention their ancestry sites through ages, by declaring them angelic places and preventing any action which could beggarly abridgement of account and appropriately indifference. They beam rituals and traditions with ample action and acclimation skills. The Seeraa pallivaasal, about four kilometers in the south eastern direction, is bare of any structures, and the Ilandai timberline is admired to be angelic at this site. Ilandai copse are attenuate in this allotment of the Ramnad district. This armpit could accept been a angelic abode in the pre-10th aeon A.D, aback the Arabs who came to barter and acclimatized forth the Coromandel coast, started affective inland. Keelathooval is 20 kilometres (12 miles) from the Bay of Bengal. All added evidences of any structures absolute in this abode accept become abolished continued back. The armpit retains its accent through the acceptable legends and rituals of this area.

The Muniappa Samy Temple with its own angelic pond is of alien origin, and the anniversary Maasi Kalari anniversary is captivated here. The community and rituals of these temples are looked afterwards a ancestors of ancestral trustees. The pond abaft this temple is lined with huge banyan trees. The Kudumboorani, with its angelic tree, shelters a ample cardinal and array of birds and the charcoal of an age-old temple of Shiva. The bean pillars angle with the statues of deities and Soolayudam, the three angled weapon of Sakthi, the accompaniment of Lord Shiva. The pond abreast this temple-site is acclimated as bubbler baptize resource, because of its apple-pie catchment area. The rituals and acceptable worships of the temple are actuality agitated out by the villagers.

The temples-cum-ponds suggests that the adjustment was amid about the temples and ponds. The active breadth of the bodies clusters in a amphitheater about the temples of about four to bristles kilometers in diameter. The two headless continuing statues of deities (or King and Queen) were vandalized during the appropriate of Malik Kafur in A.D. 1311.

Tuesday, November 24, 2009


Adichanallur is an archaeological armpit abreast Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, India. The boondocks is accepted locally as Aathichanallur, and has been the armpit of a cardinal of actual important archeological digs. In 2004, a cardinal of skeletons dating from about 3,800 years ago were begin active in ceramics urns. More than 160 urns accept been found. These urns additionally independent writing, which according to some ASI archaeologists, is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi.

Later a three-tier burying arrangement was apparent in which beforehand ancestors were active in urns at 10 ft abyss and contempo ones aloft them. Soon the habitational armpit of the bodies who were active was additionally discovered.

Analyzing the habitational site, it was accepted that bodies lived in a adherent boondocks and it had a abstracted potters quarters. There was additionally affirmation of automated action and archaeologists anticipate that it was a awash active town. Sherds were additionally begin with writings in Tamil-Brahmi scripts.

Monday, November 23, 2009

Descent of the Ganges (Mahabalipuram)

Descent of the Ganges at Mahabalipuram, in the Tamil Nadu accompaniment India, is one of a accumulation of monuments that were appointed as a World Ancestry Site back 1984. Measuring 96 anxiety (29 m) continued by 43 anxiety (13 m) high, it is a behemothic amphitheater abatement carved of the a caked rock. The monuments and sanctuaries were congenital by the Pallava kings in the 7th and 8th centuries. The fable depicted in the abatement is the news of the coast of the angelic river Ganga to apple from the blast led by Bhagirata. The amnion of Ganges are believed to acquire abnormal powers. The coast of the Ganges and Arjuna's Penance are portrayed in bean at the Pallava ancestry site

In one interpretation, a amount in the bas-relief who is continuing on one leg is said to be Arjuna assuming an acerbity Tapas to accept a benefaction from Shiva as an aid in angry the Mahabharata war. (The benefaction which Arjuna is said to accept accustomed was alleged Pasupata, Shiva's best able weapon).

The bas abatement is anchored on a bedrock with a cleft. Above the broken was a accession pool, and at one time, baptize may accept flowed forth the cleft. Figures aural the broken are said to represent Ganga or the River Ganges and Shiva. This provides the base for an another estimation of the mural. Rather than Arjuna, the amount assuming austerities is said to be Bhagiratha. Bhagiratha is said to accept performed austerities so that Ganga ability alight to apple and ablution over the ashes of his relatives, absolution them from their sins. To breach Ganga's abatement from heaven to earth, she avalanche assimilate Shiva's hair, and is disconnected into abounding streams by his tresses.

Sunday, November 22, 2009


Kuadam (also accepted as Kua or added bargain Kapadapuram) was the basic of the age-old Pandian commonwealth of the Meen'Koodal aeon (the additional Sangam academy). The admirable old artist and academician Nakkeerar and the Iraiyanaar porul'urai mentions that Kuadam was the basic from c.5400 BCE to c.1750 BCE (about 3650 years).

Around 1750 BCE, the aftermost abundant deluge abounding Kuadam and the actual allotment of the Kumari kaandam always (similar to the Biblical almanac of "the flood" age-old amid 3402 BC and 2462 BC).

Kuadam was to the arctic of the age-old Paqruli river about 700 kaadham south of the Kumari river delta.

Saturday, November 21, 2009


In aboriginal 2006, a able Neolithic celt (tool) that had engravings akin the Indus calligraphy was begin by a academy abecedary V. Shanmuganathan. The celt, a able hand-held bean axe, has four Indus Valley signs on it. The achievement with the calligraphy was anachronous to 1500 B.C.

The four signs were articular by epigraphists of the Tamil Nadu Department of Archaeology, according to its Special Commissioner, T. S. Sridhar. Iravatham Mahadevan, one of the world's foremost experts on the Indus script, believed that this analysis was actual able affirmation that the Neolithic bodies of Tamil Nadu and the Indus Valley bodies "shared the aforementioned language, which can alone be Dravidian and not Indo-Aryan." He added that afore this discovery, the southernmost accident of the Indus calligraphy was at Daimabad, Maharashtra on the Pravara River in the Godavari Valley. The achievability of the celt advancing from North India was additionally disqualified out as the actual of this bean was of peninsular origin.

The analysis of this celt acquired a activity in archaeological circles. Subsequently, the Archaeological Survey of India absitively to burrow the Sembiyankandiyur armpit to acquisition out its antique and fix the chronology.

Four trenches were laid at the abode area the celt with the engravings were found. Important allegation from the trenches were bowls, dishes, burst urns, full-size urns and added articles. Eight urns were begin to be accumbent in a accurate manner, three of them with animal bones. Some urns had ritual pots inside. Some pots and sherds accept thumb-nail impressions on them.

Full-shape pots had the graffiti depicting a fish, a ‘damaru’, sun, brilliant and a swastika. Geometric designs and marks depicting fish, sun and brilliant and graffiti marks are generally begin on black-and-red ceramics and atramentous ware, with the symbols sometimes repeated.

Tuesday, November 10, 2009


The complex of Newgrange was originally built between c. 3100 and 2900 BC, meaning that it's aproximately 5,000 years old. According to Carbon-14 dates, it is more than 500 years older than the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, and predates Stonehenge by about 1,000 years.

In the Neolithic period, Newgrange continued as a focus of some ceremonial activity. New monuments added to the site included a timber circle to the south-east of the main mound and a smaller timber circle to the west. The eastern timber circle consisted of five concentric rows of pits. The outer row contained wooden posts. The next row of pits had clay linings and was used to burn animal remains. The three inner rows of pits were dug to accept the animal remains. Within the circle were post and stake holes associated with Beaker pottery and flint flakes. The western timber circle consisted of two concentric rows of parallel postholes and pits defining a circle 20 m in diameter.

A concentric mound of clay was constructed around the southern and western sides of the mound and covered a structure consisting of two parallel lines of post and ditches that had been partly burnt. A free-standing circle of large stones was constructed encircling the mound. Near the entrance, 17 hearths were used to set fires. These structures at Newgrange are generally contemporary with a number of Henges known from the Boyne Valley, at Newgrange Site A, Newgrange Site O, Dowth Henge and Monknewtown Henge.

Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia (Turkish: Ayasofya, from the Greek: Ἁγία Σοφία, "Holy Wisdom"; Latin: Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a above Orthodox affectionate basilica, after a mosque, now a architecture in Istanbul, Turkey. Famous in accurate for its massive dome, it is advised the apotheosis of Byzantine architectonics and to accept "changed the history of architecture." It was the better basilica in the apple for about a thousand years, until the achievement of the Seville Basilica in 1520. The accepted architecture was originally complete as a abbey amid 532 and 537 A.D. on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, and was in actuality the third Abbey of the Angelic Wisdom to absorb the armpit (the antecedent two had both been destroyed by riots). It was advised by two architects, Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles. The Abbey independent a ample accumulating of angelic charcoal and featured, amid added things, a 15m (49 foot) argent iconostasis. It was the bench of the Patriarch of Constantinople and the religious focal point of the Eastern Orthodox Abbey for about one thousand years. It was the abbey in which Cardinal Humbert marched up to the chantry and excommunicated Cerularius, appearance the official alpha of the Great Schism.

In 1453, Constantinople was baffled by the Ottoman Turks and Sultan Mehmed II ordered the architecture to be adapted into a mosque.The bells, altar, iconostasis, and sacrificial argosy were removed, and abounding of the mosaics were eventually bashed over. The Islamic appearance — such as the mihrab, the minbar, and the four minarets alfresco — were added over the advance of its history beneath the Ottomans. It remained as a abbey until 1935, back it was adapted into a architecture by the Republic of Turkey.

Wednesday, November 4, 2009

Nubian pyramids

The breadth of the Nile basin accepted as Nubia that lies aural present day Sudan was home to three Kushite kingdoms during antiquity: the aboriginal with its basic at Kerma (2600–1520 BC), the additional centered on Napata (1000–300 BC) and, finally, the commonwealth of Meroë (300 BC–AD 300).

Kerma was Nubia's aboriginal centralized accompaniment with its own aboriginal forms of architectonics and burying customs. The aftermost two kingdoms, Napata and Meroe, were heavily afflicted culturally, economically, politically, and militarily by the able pharaonic Egyptian authority to the north. The Kushite kingdoms in about-face competed acerb with Egypt, to the admeasurement that during the backward aeon of Ancient Egyptian history, the rulers of Napata baffled and unified Egypt herself, cardinal as the pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty.

The Napatan ascendancy of Egypt was almost brief—it concluded with the Assyrian acquisition in 656 BC—but its cultural appulse on the Napatans was enormous, and this coalesced into an amazing access of pyramid-building action that was abiding throughout the actuality of Napata's almsman kingdom, Meroë.

Approximately 220 pyramids were eventually complete at three sites in Nubia over a aeon of a few hundred years to serve as tombs for the kings and queens of Napata and Meroë. The aboriginal of these was congenital at the armpit of el-Kurru, including the tombs of King Kashta and his son Piye (Piankhi), calm with Piye's breed Shabaka, Shabataka, and Tanwetamani. Fourteen pyramids were complete for their queens, several of whom were acclaimed warrior queens. This can be compared to about 120 pyramids that were complete in Ancient Egypt over a aeon of 3000 years.

Tuesday, November 3, 2009

Konark Sun Temple

The temple takes the anatomy of the agent of Surya (Arka), the sun god, and is heavily busy with bean carving. The absolute circuitous was advised in the anatomy of a huge agent fatigued by six active horses on twelve pairs of alluringly busy wheels.

The access is attentive by two behemothic lions, which are anniversary apparent crushing a war elephant. Anniversary albatross in about-face lies on top of a animal body. The temple symbolizes the majestic stride of the Sun god. At the access of the temple is a Nata Mandir. This is area the temple dancers acclimated to accomplish dances in admiration to the Sun god. All about the temple, there are assorted floral and geometric patterns.The temple is now partly in ruins, and a accumulating of its sculptures is housed in the Sun Temple Museum, which is run by the Archaeological Survey of India. The artist Rabindranath Tagore wrote of Konark: "here the accent of bean surpasses the accent of man."

The Sun Temple, congenital in the thirteenth century, was conceived as a gigantic agent of Sun God, with twelve pairs of alluringly bizarre auto pulled by seven pairs of horses. Majestic in conception, this temple is one of the best abstract monuments of India, acclaimed as abundant for its arty ambit and faultless accommodation as for the adapted affiliation of architectural amplitude with artificial allegiance. Every inch of the temple is covered with carve of an incomparable adorableness and grace, in tableaux and freestanding pieces alignment from the awe-inspiring to the miniature. The accountable amount is fascinating. Thousands of images accommodate deities, angelic and animal musicians, dancers, lovers, and countless scenes of adulatory life, alignment from hunts and aggressive battles to the pleasures of adulatory relaxation. These are interspersed with birds, animals (close to two thousand absorbing and active elephants advance about the abject of the capital temple alone), fabulous creatures, and a abundance of intricate botanical and geometrical adorning designs. The acclaimed jewel-like affection of Orissan art is axiomatic throughout, as is a actual animal angle which makes the carve acutely accessible.


In the twenty-seventh aeon of Kali yuga the Mlechcha invaders started advancing North India some Bargujar Rajputs confused appear east to axial India, they disqualified over North-Eastern arena of Rajasthan alleged Dhundhar and were referred to as Dhundhel/Dhundhela in age-old times, for the arena they governed. Later on they alleged themselves Bundelas and Chandelas those who were in the cardinal chic accepting gotra Kashyap were absolutely all Bargujars they were vassals of Gurjara - Pratihara authority of North India which lasted from 500 C.E. to 1300 C.E. and was at its aiguille back above monuments were built. The Bargujars additionally congenital the Kalinjar acropolis and Neelkanth Mahadev temple agnate to one at Sariska National Park and Baroli, actuality Shiva worshipers. The burghal was the cultural basic of Chandela Rajputs, a Hindu absolutism that disqualified this allotment of India from the 10th to the 12th centuries. Political basic of Chandelas was Kalinjar. The Khajuraho temples were congenital over a amount of 200 years, from 950 to 1150. The Chandela basic was confused to Mahoba afterwards this time, but Khajuraho connected to curl for some time. Khajuraho has no forts because the Chandel Kings never lived in their cultural capital.

The accomplished breadth was amid by a bank with eight gates, anniversary belted by two aureate approach trees. There were originally over 80 Hindu temples, of which alone 25 now angle in a reasonable accompaniment of preservation, broadcast over an breadth of about 8 aboveboard miles

Monday, November 2, 2009

Pyramid of Khendjer

The Pyramid of Khendjer was congenital for the burying of Pharaoh Khendjer, who disqualified Egypt during the 13th Dynasty. Amid amid the pyramid of Pepi II and the pyramid of Senusret III in South Saqqara, it was apparent by Gustave Jequier in 1929. The pyramid currently lies in ruins, due in allotment to the damaging excavations done by Jequier, with its charcoal alone ascent one beat aloft the arid sand.

The pyramid circuitous was amid by close and alien walls. The close bank was fabricated of limestone, and was created to alter an beforehand bouncing wall. The alien bank was fabricated of mudbrick.

The mortuary temple was amid on the east ancillary of the complex. It crosses over both the close and alien walls. This accustomed for the alien area of the temple to be placed alfresco the close wall, with the close altar on the central of the close wall. Very little charcoal of the temple, except for $.25 of reliefs and columns. A abbey is amid at the arctic ancillary of the circuitous and was congenital out to the close bank and adjoin the face of the pyramid. The abbey was aloft on a belvedere and could be accomplished by two stairways. In its arctic bank was a apocryphal door. The area of the aperture was abnormal because the abutting bank to the pyramid was the south wall.

The pyramid stood at about 37.35 meters in height, but now stands alone one beat tall, due to the abrasion of its mudbrick core. The pyramid already was cased in limestone, but it was quarried by bean robbers, which larboard the amount unprotected. A burst pyramidion was apparent on the east ancillary of the circuitous and now has been restored. On one ancillary of the pyramidion the ball of King Userkare is inscribed. This name is believed by Egyptologists to be the head name of Khendjer.

Sunday, November 1, 2009


The Great Pyramid of Giza (also alleged the Pyramid of Khufu and Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and better of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis adjoining what is now El Giza, Egypt, and is the alone one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient Apple that survives essentially intact. It is believed the pyramid was congenital as a tomb for Fourth absolutism Egyptian King Khufu (Cheops in Greek) and complete over a 20 year aeon absolute about 2540 BC. The Great Pyramid was the tallest counterfeit anatomy in the apple for over 3,800 years. Originally the Great Pyramid was covered by case stones that formed a bland alien surface, and what is apparent today is the basal amount structure. Some of the case stones that already covered the anatomy can still be apparent about the base. There accept been capricious accurate and another theories apropos the Great Pyramid's architecture techniques. Most accustomed architecture theories are based on the abstraction that it was congenital by affective huge stones from a quarry and boring and appropriation them into place.

There are three accepted accommodation central the Great Pyramid. The everyman alcove is cut into the basement aloft which the pyramid was congenital and was unfinished. The so-called[1] Queen's Alcove and King's Alcove are college up aural the pyramid structure. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the capital allotment of a circuitous ambience of barrio that included two mortuary temples in account of Khufu (one abutting to the pyramid and one abreast the Nile), three abate pyramids for Khufu's wives, an alike abate "satellite" pyramid, a aloft causeway abutting the two temples, and baby mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles.

Friday, October 30, 2009

Palm Islands 2

The Palm Jumeirah ( Coordinates: 25°06′28″N 55°08′15″E / 25.10778°N 55.1375°E / 25.10778; 55.1375 ) consists of a trunk, a acme with 17 fronds, and a surrounding bow-shaped island that forms an 11 kilometer-long breakwater. The island itself is 5 kilometers by 5 kilometers. It will add 78 kilometers to the Dubai coastline. The aboriginal appearance of development on the Palm Jumeirah will actualize 4,000 residences with a aggregate of villas and apartments over the abutting 3 to 4 years. Residents began affective into their Palm Jumeirah backdrop at the end of 2006, bristles years afterwards acreage affirmation began, according to activity developer Nakheel Properties. This signaled the end of appearance one of construction, which includes about 1,400 villas on 11 of the fronds of the island and almost 2,500 bank apartments in 20 barrio on the east ancillary of the trunk. Nakheel Backdrop will mark the accession of the aboriginal association by bringing one of the world's better airships to Dubai. It has agreed to a accord with Airship Management Services Inc. for a 197 anxiety (60 m) long, 250,000-cubic-foot (7,100 m3) Skyship 600 dirigible. According to Nakheel Backdrop officials, the action of abacus 78 kilometers of bank is beneath way, while eight of the 32 hotels on The Palm Jumeirah accept amorphous construction, including the Taj Exotica Resort and Spa, which was planned for achievement in backward 2008 or aboriginal 2009, is delayed and now accepted to accessible in aboriginal 2010. The aboriginal appearance Atlantis, The Palm Resort, is appointed to be completed by December 2008. Atlantis, The Palm opened on 24 September, 2008.

Monday, October 5, 2009


The chat "skyscraper" originally was a abyssal appellation apropos to a baby triangular captain set aloft the skysail on a sailing ship. The appellation was aboriginal activated to barrio in the backward 19th aeon as a aftereffect of accessible admiration at the alpine barrio actuality congenital in Chicago and New York City. The acceptable analogue of a architecture began with the "first skyscraper", Chicago's now burst ten-storey steel-framed Home Insurance Architecture (1885).The structural analogue of the chat architecture was aesthetic after by architectural historians, based on engineering developments of the 1880s that had enabled architecture of alpine multi-storey buildings. This analogue was based on the animate skeleton—-as against to constructions of load-bearing masonry, which anesthetized their applied absolute in 1891 with Chicago's Monadnock Building. Philadelphia's City Hall, completed in 1901, still holds affirmation as the world's tallest load-bearing masonry anatomy at 167 m (548 ft). The animate anatomy developed in stages of accretion self-sufficiency, with several barrio in Chicago and New York advancing the technology that accustomed the animate anatomy to backpack a architecture on its own. Today, however, abounding of the tallest skyscrapers are congenital about absolutely with able concrete. Pumps and accumulator tanks advance baptize burden at the top of skyscrapers.A apart assemblage in the United States and Europe now draws the lower absolute of a architecture at 150 meters (500 ft). A architecture taller than 300 meters (984 ft) may be referred to as supertall. Shorter barrio are still sometimes referred to as skyscrapers if they arise to boss their surroundings.The somewhat approximate appellation architecture should not be abashed with the additionally aside appellation high-rise. The Emporis Standards Committee defines a high-rise architecture as "a multi-story anatomy amid 35-100 meters tall, or a architecture of alien acme from 12-39 floors" and a architecture as "a multi-story architecture whose architectural acme is at atomic 100 meters."Some structural engineers ascertain a highrise as any vertical architecture for which wind is a added cogent amount agency than convulsion or weight. Note that this archetype fits not alone aerial rises but some added alpine structures, such as towers.The chat architecture generally carries a association of pride and achievement. The skyscraper, in name and amusing function, is a avant-garde announcement of the age-old attribute of the apple centermost or arbor mundi: a colonnade that connects apple to heaven and the four ambit admonition to one another.

Sunday, October 4, 2009

Sears Tower

Willis Tower, formerly named Sears Tower, is a 108-story 1,450 feet (442 m) skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. At the time of
its completion in 1973 it was the tallest building in the world, surpassing the World Trade Center towers in New York.
Currently, Willis Tower is the tallest building in the United States and the fifth-tallest freestanding structure in the

Although Sears' naming rights expired in 2003, the building continued to be called Sears Tower for several years. However,
in March 2009 London-based insurance broker Willis Group Holdings, Ltd., agreed to lease a portion of the building and
obtained the building's naming rights as part of the agreement. On July 16, 2009, at 10:00 am Central Time, the building
was officially renamed Willis Tower.In February 2009 the owners announced they are considering a plan to paint the
structure silver. The paint would "rebrand" the building and highlight its advances in energy efficiency. The estimated
cost is $50 million.

Since 2007 the building owners have been considering building a hotel adjacent to the building on the north side of
Jackson between Wacker and Franklin on the site of a plaza that is the entrance to tower's observation deck. The tower's
parking garage is beneath the plaza. Building owners say the second building was considered in the original design.
City zoning does not permit construction of such a tall tower there

Saturday, October 3, 2009

Dubai Fountain

Dubai Fountain is the center piece of the Downtown Burj Dubai, located at the front of Burj Dubai. Emaar, the developer of Burj Dubai, and Downtown Burj Dubai had announced the Dubai fountains in June, 2008, at the expected cost of AED 800 million or USD 218 million, which is the total cost of the Fountain's lake, the fountain, and its filtration system. The Dubai fountain is one of the world's tallest fountains, surpassing the Fountains of Bellagio at Las Vegas. The Dubai fountains is 275 meters (902.275 ft) long, which is more than the length of two football fields[1]. It is 25 % larger than the Fountains of Bellagio at Las Vegas[1]. The Dubai fountains can be seen from over 200 miles away up in space or horizontally if you have a clear line of sight. The fountains can shoot to the maximum height of 150 meters, which is equivalent to the 50-storey building or high enough to wash the windows a fifth of the way up the Burj Dubai.

Friday, October 2, 2009

Burj Skyscraper

Burj Dubai , a supertall skyscraper under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, is
the tallest man-made structure ever built, at 818 m (2,684 ft). Construction began on 21 September 2004, and the tower is expected to be completed and ready for occupancy by the end of 2009. The building is part of the 2 km2 (0.8 sq mi) flagship development called "Downtown Burj Dubai" at the "First Interchange" along Sheikh Zayed Road, near Dubai's main business district. The tower's architect is Adrian Smith, who worked with
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) until 2006. The Chicago-based architecture and engineering firm SOM is in charge of the project.[8] The primary builders are Samsung Engineering & Construction and Besix along with Arabtec. Turner Construction Company was chosen as the construction manager. The total budget for the Burj Dubai project is about US$4.1 billion, and for the entire new "Downtown Dubai", US$20 billion. Mohamed Ali Alabbar, the CEO of Emaar Properties, speaking at the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat 8th World Congress, said that the price of office space at Burj Dubai had reached US$4,000 per sq ft (over US$43,000 per m2) and that the Armani Residences, also in Burj Dubai, were selling for US$3,500 per sq ft (over US$37,500 per m2).

Thursday, October 1, 2009

Palm Islands 1

The Palm Islands are bogus peninsula complete of beach dredged from the basal of the Persian Gulf by the Belgian company Jan De Nul and the Dutch aggregation Van Oord. The beach is sprayed by the dredging ships, which are guided by DGPS, onto the appropriate breadth in a action accepted as rainbowing because of the arcs in the air back the beach is sprayed. The alien edge of anniversary Palm's encircling bow-shaped is a ample bedrock breakwater. The anchorage of the Palm Jumeirah has over seven actor bags of rock. Anniversary bedrock was placed alone by a crane, active off by a diver and accustomed a GPS coordinate. The Jan De Nul Group started alive on the Palm Jebel Ali in 2002 and had accomplished by the end of 2006. The affirmationproject for the Palm Jebel Ali includes the conception of a four kilometre continued peninsula, adequate by a 200 accent wide, seventeen kilometre continued annular breakwater. 210,000,000 m3 of rock, beach and limestone were reclaimed (partly basic from the Jebel Ali Entrance Channel dredging works). There are about 10,000,000 m3 of rocks in the abruptness aegis works.

Wednesday, August 19, 2009

Australia-China ties

Australia's ambassador to China has returned home as relationship between the two nations continue to sour, but australian capital Canberra denies he was recalled for emergency talks,
despite China media branding Australia "sino-phobic".Australia-China ties have been strained high by the recent arrest of an Australian mining executive in Shanghai
on allegations of commercial espionage, and by Australia's granting of a visa to an exiled leader of China's restive Muslim Uighur there was a clash between Muslim Uighur and other chinese killed many life Australian Ambassador Geoff Raby arrived Australia on Wednesday for what Australian newspapers described as emergency meetings
as Sino-Australia relations continue to deteriorate. But Foreign Minister Stephen Smith said on Thursday the meetings were routine. "He hasn't been rushed back to Canberra.
He comes back on a regular basis," Smith told national radio.
Australia, in stressing the strength of its ties with China, has pointed to this week's $41.5 billion deal to sell
liquefied natural gas to PetroChina.

But the China Daily, the Communist Party's official English-language paper, carried an editorial on Wednesday saying
Australia's "sino-phobic politicians" were leading the world's "anti-China chorus" and siding with Uighur leader Rebiya

The China Daily said Australia had itself to blame for the cancellation of a visit last month by Vice-Minister for Foreign
Affairs because Canberra had granted Kadeer a visa.

"The cancellation of a visit to Australia by Chinese vice-foreign minister is a restrained and reasonable response on
the part of Beijing when that country has challenged China's core national interests," it said.

"By providing Kadeer a platform for anti-Chinese separatist activities, Canberra chose to side with a terrorist and
severely hurt China's national interests."

Sunday, August 9, 2009

Swine influenza

H1N1 flu has been spreading all over the world. As of Aug-9 4 Total deaths around the world are 1154 and confirmed cases are 162380.
Highly affected countries of swine flu are Mexico (506) United states (226) Canada (85) Spain (40)United Kingdom (15)..........
Symptoms of flu
· high fever and cough
· Fatigue
· Sudden dizziness
· Severe vomiting
· Difficulty breathing
· Confusion
· Pain in chest or abdomen
· Sore throat
· Diarrhea
Once these symptoms found
keep the sick person as far away from other people
ask them to cover their coughs or Sneeze, and clean their hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub often, especially after coughing.
swine flu are from pigs.Stop Swine flu save humans

Saturday, August 8, 2009


Yahoo founded in 1995 a year before google in Santa Clara California.founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo. yahoo is one of the giant in search world. at the close of 1994, search engine had already received more than one million hits.
This the time so Yahoo domain was created on January 18, 1995. ,On April 12, 1996, Yahoo! had its initial public offering, raising $33.8 million, by selling 2.6 million shares at
$13 each.Yang and Filo found that their website had
massive business value, and on March 1, 1995
Yahoo! was started. On April 5, 1995, Michael
Moritz of Sequoia Capital provided Yahoo with two rounds of venture capital, raising approximately $3 million. Web portal providers rushed to acquire companies
to expand their range of services, in the hope of increasing the time a user stays at the portal.

Like many search engines and web directories, Yahoo diversified into a Web portal. In the late 1990s, Yahoo messanger was a massive hit
MSN, Lycos, Excite and other Web portals were growing rapidly.

Thursday, August 6, 2009


group of maps is called atlas.

The earliest atlases were not called by that name at the time of their publication, as it was introduced in 1595 by Gerardus Mercator. know information about world.

The Atlas Mts. are a climatic barrier between the Mediterranean basin and the Sahara DesertThe first publisher to associate the Titan Atlas with a group of maps was Lafreri, on the title-page to "Tavole Moderne Di Geografia De La Maggior Parte Del Mondo Di Diversi Autori ...". However, he did not use the word "atlas" in the title of his work.

The origin of the term atlas is a common source of misconception, perhaps because two different mythical figures named 'Atlas' are associated with mapmaking.The Atlas Mts., predominantly folded mountains of sedimentary rock, were uplifted during the late Jurassic period.

Geologically related to the Alpine system of Europe, they are separated from the Sierra Nevada of Spain by the Strait of Gibraltar and from Sicily and the Apennines of Italy by the Mediterranean Sea; the Canary Islands are a westward extension

Wednesday, August 5, 2009


This is about nokia it was founded in Tampere finland. in 1865

The first Nokia century began with Fredrik Idestam's paper mill on the banks of the Nokianvirta river. Between 1865 and 1967.

A mining engineer by trade, Idestam brought a new, cheaper paper manufacturing process to Finland from Germany.

It was a great success. Idestam’s invention won a bronze medal at the Paris World Exposition in 1867, and he is considered to be the father of Finland’s paper industry.

* Idestam named his company Nokia Ab in 1871
* Nokia Ab added electricity generation to its business activities in 1902

Initially spanning several Nordic countries, the service was the world’s first international cellular network. It was also the first to allow international roaming, and caught on fast both inside and outside Europe.

Mobile explosion

With the introduction of the NMT standard, the mobile phone industry began to expand rapidly.

Nokia soon introduced the first car phones to the network. The Mobira 450 car phone came in 1982, followed by the portable in 1986. By this time the company was also providing base stations and switches for NMT network operators.

Since 1964, Nokia had developed VHF radio simultaneously with Salora Oy. In 1966, Nokia and Salora started developing the ARP standard (which stands for Autoradiopuhelin, or car radio phone in English), a car-based mobile radio telephony system and the first commercially operated public mobile phone network in Finland. It went online in 1971 and offered 100% coverage in 1978

Monday, August 3, 2009

Australia Under terrorist scanner

Australian officials arrested four suspects all were Australian citizens age were from 22 - 26.All were belong to a terrorist
group called Al-Shabaab. One of the main Islamic terrorist group in Somalia.They have planned to operate a sucide attack
on Army base.their plan was to kill as many as Soldiers before they die.
Police said members of a Melbourne-based group had "been
undertaking planning to carry out a terrorist attack in Australia."some 400 police personals were involved in raid
''The men's intention was to actually go into the Army barracks and to kill as many soldiers as they could before they themselves were killed,''
Negus told reporters in the southern city of Melbourne.Al-Shabaab are wanted by US in 1998 attack on US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.
Al-Shabab is an Islamic organization that controls much of southern Somalia


Quran holy book of Islam
The Book that God gave to His Messenger through revelation, and which he passed on to the Humanity in the form in which we know it today. Qur'an or Koran [Arab.,=reading, recitation], the sacred book of Islam. Revealed by God to the Prophet Muhammad in separate revelations over the major portion of the Prophet's life at Mecca and at Medina, the Qur'an was intended as a recited text, and was not compiled as a single volume during the life of the Prophet.
The Qur'an itself expresses that it is the book of guidance. Therefore it rarely offers detailed accounts of historical events; the text instead typically placing emphasis on the moral significance of an event rather than its narrative sequence. Muslims believe the Qur'an itself to be the main miracle of Muhammad and a proof of his prophethood. Being the verbatim Word of God, the text of the Qur'an is valid for religious purposes only in its original Arabic, cannot be modified, and is not translatable, although the necessity for non-Arabic interpretations is recognized. The text of the Qur’an consists of 114 chapters of varying lengths, each known as a sura. Chapters are classed as Meccan or Medinan, depending on where the verses were revealed. Chapter titles are derived from a name or quality discussed in the text, or from the first letters or words of the sura.
Muslims believe that Muhammad, on God's command, gave the chapters their namesThis has made the Qur'an the most read book in its original language and preserved a classical form of Arabic as an Islamic lingua franca and medium of learning. Islam is not a private individual affair, but a collective system, not a vehicle of personal salvation but of universal welfare, not an adversary of reason but a liberator of human reason, not a breeder of superstition but a radical challenge to all superstition, not a purveyor of fearful conformity but a creator in man of courage and self reliance, not a call for renunciation of the concrete and the real but an invitation to conquer and subjugate the world of matter, not a supporter of the status quo and of the vested interests but a beacon light pointing in the direction of a total "revolt against all forms of tyranny and exploitation".
It is, in short, a loud "YES" to life, and totally rejects the whimpering "NO" which religious priest-craft has used to shackle the divine potentialities created in man by God.