Friday, October 30, 2009
Monday, October 5, 2009
The chat "skyscraper" originally was a abyssal appellation apropos to a baby triangular captain set aloft the skysail on a sailing ship. The appellation was aboriginal activated to barrio in the backward 19th aeon as a aftereffect of accessible admiration at the alpine barrio actuality congenital in Chicago and New York City. The acceptable analogue of a architecture began with the "first skyscraper", Chicago's now burst ten-storey steel-framed Home Insurance Architecture (1885).The structural analogue of the chat architecture was aesthetic after by architectural historians, based on engineering developments of the 1880s that had enabled architecture of alpine multi-storey buildings. This analogue was based on the animate skeleton—-as against to constructions of load-bearing masonry, which anesthetized their applied absolute in 1891 with Chicago's Monadnock Building. Philadelphia's City Hall, completed in 1901, still holds affirmation as the world's tallest load-bearing masonry anatomy at 167 m (548 ft). The animate anatomy developed in stages of accretion self-sufficiency, with several barrio in Chicago and New York advancing the technology that accustomed the animate anatomy to backpack a architecture on its own. Today, however, abounding of the tallest skyscrapers are congenital about absolutely with able concrete. Pumps and accumulator tanks advance baptize burden at the top of skyscrapers.A apart assemblage in the United States and Europe now draws the lower absolute of a architecture at 150 meters (500 ft). A architecture taller than 300 meters (984 ft) may be referred to as supertall. Shorter barrio are still sometimes referred to as skyscrapers if they arise to boss their surroundings.The somewhat approximate appellation architecture should not be abashed with the additionally aside appellation high-rise. The Emporis Standards Committee defines a high-rise architecture as "a multi-story anatomy amid 35-100 meters tall, or a architecture of alien acme from 12-39 floors" and a architecture as "a multi-story architecture whose architectural acme is at atomic 100 meters."Some structural engineers ascertain a highrise as any vertical architecture for which wind is a added cogent amount agency than convulsion or weight. Note that this archetype fits not alone aerial rises but some added alpine structures, such as towers.The chat architecture generally carries a association of pride and achievement. The skyscraper, in name and amusing function, is a avant-garde announcement of the age-old attribute of the apple centermost or arbor mundi: a colonnade that connects apple to heaven and the four ambit admonition to one another.
Sunday, October 4, 2009
its completion in 1973 it was the tallest building in the world, surpassing the World Trade Center towers in New York.
Currently, Willis Tower is the tallest building in the United States and the fifth-tallest freestanding structure in the
Although Sears' naming rights expired in 2003, the building continued to be called Sears Tower for several years. However,
in March 2009 London-based insurance broker Willis Group Holdings, Ltd., agreed to lease a portion of the building and
obtained the building's naming rights as part of the agreement. On July 16, 2009, at 10:00 am Central Time, the building
was officially renamed Willis Tower.In February 2009 the owners announced they are considering a plan to paint the
structure silver. The paint would "rebrand" the building and highlight its advances in energy efficiency. The estimated
cost is $50 million.
Since 2007 the building owners have been considering building a hotel adjacent to the building on the north side of
Jackson between Wacker and Franklin on the site of a plaza that is the entrance to tower's observation deck. The tower's
parking garage is beneath the plaza. Building owners say the second building was considered in the original design.
City zoning does not permit construction of such a tall tower there
Saturday, October 3, 2009
Friday, October 2, 2009
the tallest man-made structure ever built, at 818 m (2,684 ft). Construction began on 21 September 2004, and the tower is expected to be completed and ready for occupancy by the end of 2009. The building is part of the 2 km2 (0.8 sq mi) flagship development called "Downtown Burj Dubai" at the "First Interchange" along Sheikh Zayed Road, near Dubai's main business district. The tower's architect is Adrian Smith, who worked with
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) until 2006. The Chicago-based architecture and engineering firm SOM is in charge of the project. The primary builders are Samsung Engineering & Construction and Besix along with Arabtec. Turner Construction Company was chosen as the construction manager. The total budget for the Burj Dubai project is about US$4.1 billion, and for the entire new "Downtown Dubai", US$20 billion. Mohamed Ali Alabbar, the CEO of Emaar Properties, speaking at the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat 8th World Congress, said that the price of office space at Burj Dubai had reached US$4,000 per sq ft (over US$43,000 per m2) and that the Armani Residences, also in Burj Dubai, were selling for US$3,500 per sq ft (over US$37,500 per m2).
Thursday, October 1, 2009
The Palm Islands are bogus peninsula complete of beach dredged from the basal of the Persian Gulf by the Belgian company Jan De Nul and the Dutch aggregation Van Oord. The beach is sprayed by the dredging ships, which are guided by DGPS, onto the appropriate breadth in a action accepted as rainbowing because of the arcs in the air back the beach is sprayed. The alien edge of anniversary Palm's encircling bow-shaped is a ample bedrock breakwater. The anchorage of the Palm Jumeirah has over seven actor bags of rock. Anniversary bedrock was placed alone by a crane, active off by a diver and accustomed a GPS coordinate. The Jan De Nul Group started alive on the Palm Jebel Ali in 2002 and had accomplished by the end of 2006. The affirmationproject for the Palm Jebel Ali includes the conception of a four kilometre continued peninsula, adequate by a 200 accent wide, seventeen kilometre continued annular breakwater. 210,000,000 m3 of rock, beach and limestone were reclaimed (partly basic from the Jebel Ali Entrance Channel dredging works). There are about 10,000,000 m3 of rocks in the abruptness aegis works.