Friday, November 27, 2009


The temples of Mamallapuram, congenital abundantly during the reigns of Narasimhavarman and his almsman Rajasimhavarman, advertise the movement from rock-cut architectonics to structural building. The mandapa or pavilions and the rathas or shrines shaped as temple chariots are hewn from the granite bedrock face, while the acclaimed Shore Temple, erected bisected a aeon later, is congenital from dressed what makes Mamallapuram so culturally beating are the influences it absorbs and disseminates. The Shore Temple includes abounding bas reliefs including one 100 ft. continued and 45 ft. aerial carved out of granite.

All but one of the rathas from the aboriginal appearance of Pallava architectonics are modelled on the Budhist viharas or monasteries and chaitya halls with several beef abiding about a courtyard. Art historian Percy Brown, in fact, traces the accessible roots of the Pallava Mandapa to the agnate rock-cut caves of Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves. Referring to Narasimhavarman's achievement in AD 642 over the Chalukyan baron Pulakesin II, Brown says the Pallava baron may accept brought the sculptors and artisans aback to Kanchi and Mamallapuram as 'spoils of war

According to descriptions by aboriginal biking writers from Britain, the breadth abreast Mahabalipuram had seven pagodas by the sea. Accounts of Mahabalipuram were aboriginal accounting bottomward by British traveller John Goldingham who was told of the "Seven Pagodas" back he visited in 1798.
An age-old anchorage burghal and genitalia of a temple congenital in the 7th aeon may accept been baldheaded by the tsunami that resulted from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. As the after-effects gradually receded, the force of the baptize removed beach deposits that had covered assorted bouldered structures and appear carvings of animals, which included an elaborately carved arch of an albatross and a horse in flight. A baby square-shaped alcove with a carved bronze of a celestial could be apparent aloft the arch of the elephant. In addition structure, there was a carve of a collapsed lion. The use of these beastly sculptures as decorations is constant with added busy walls and temples from the Pallava aeon in the 7th and 8th centuries.

The Archaeological Survey of India beatific defined to activate underwater excavations of the breadth on 17 February 2005.

Thursday, November 26, 2009

Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram

The name “Seven Pagodas” has served as a appellation for the south Indian burghal of Mahabalipuram, additionally alleged Mamallapuram, back the aboriginal European campaign accomplished the city. The byword “Seven Pagodas” refers to a allegory that has broadcast in India, Europe, and added genitalia of the apple for over eleven centuries. Mahabalipuram’s Bank Temple, congenital in the 8th aeon CE beneath the administration of Narasimhavarman II, stands at the bank of the Bay of Bengal. Fable has it that six added temples already stood with it.

An age-old Brahman fable explains the pagodas’ origins in allegorical terms. Prince Hiranyakasipu banned to adoration the god Vishnu. The prince’s son, Prahlada, admired Vishnu greatly, and criticized his father’s abridgement of faith. Hiranyakasipu abandoned Prahlada, but again relented and accustomed him to appear home. Ancestor and son bound began to altercate about Vishu’s nature. When Prahlada declared that Vishnu was present everywhere, including in the walls of their home, his ancestor kicked a pillar. Vishnu emerged from the colonnade in the anatomy of a man with a lion’s head, and dead Hiranyakasipu. Prahlada eventually became king, and had a son alleged Bali. Bali founded Mahabalipuram on this site. (Adapted from Coombes, 23-4.)

The temples’ origins accept been blocked by time, abridgement of complete accounting records, and storytelling. Englishman D. R. Fyson, a adept citizen of Madras (now Chennai), wrote a abridged book on the burghal of Mahabalipuram blue-blooded Mahabalipuram or Seven Pagodas, which he advised as a gift aggregate for Western visitors to the city. In it, he states that the Pallava Baron Narasimharavarman I either began or abundantly continued aloft Mahabalipuram, about 630 CE (Fyson 1). Archaeological affirmation has not yet acutely accurate whether Narasimharavarman I’s burghal was the age-old to abide this location.

About 30 years above-mentioned to the founding of Narasimharavarman I’s city, Pallava Baron Mahendravarman I had amorphous a alternation of “cave temples,” which were carved into bouldered hillsides (Fyson 2). Contrary to what the name suggests, they generally did not activate as accustomed caves. Mahendravarman I and Narasimharavarman I additionally ordered architectonics of free-standing temples, alleged rathas in the region’s language, Tamil. Nine rathas currently angle at the armpit (Ramaswami, 209). Architectonics of both types of temples in Mahabalipuram appears to accept concluded about 640 CE (Fyson 3). Fyson states that archaeological affirmation supports the affirmation that a monastery, or vihara in Tamil, existed in age-old Mahabalipuram. The abstraction of the abbey would accept been adopted from practices of the region’s accomplished Buddhist inhabitants. Fyson suggests that the monks’ abode may accept been disconnected amid a cardinal of the city’s rathas, based on their analysis into baby rooms. Buddhist access is additionally credible in the acceptable pagoda appearance of the Bank Temple and added actual architectonics (Fyson 5).

Wednesday, November 25, 2009


The sites are: The Ayyanar and Kali Temple amid two kilometers from the present adjustment with its own ‘drinking water’ pond. The temple and the pond are preserved by the villagers for the anniversary festival. The banyan copse abutting the temple are accounted to accept cloistral armies and now they apartment the celebratory crowds during the anniversary festivals of the temple. They are alluring comedy breadth for the accouchement who beat from their different accessory blind roots, which additionally bolster the timberline by growing into backup trunks of the tree.

The ample baptize pond acclimated by the boondocks for a pond basin was deepened in the 1970s. Aback its attic was dug up, tens of mudhumakkal Thazhis (burial urns) were appear with earthen lamps and bistro accoutrement in the acceptance that the asleep may acquisition ablaze and aliment in their afterlife. Such finds are archaeological affirmation of age-old cultures and their community of ambidextrous with the actual old and the dead. The locals, blind of the accent of their ‘excavation’, covered the site, with due admiration to the dead.

The Pallivasal (Tamil for a abbey or madarasa) abreast the Kuttivila grove, about a kilometer to the east of the village, breadth the Paramakudi-Mudukulathur Road passes through). The fable refers to the armpit as a abbey or madarasa. The armpit has a bracken of Kuttivila trees, which are advised to be angelic by the bounded association and preserved, alike from the accouchement who get analytical to analyze the copse and backbone the Kuttivila fruits, which is candied aback ripe.

The acumen and the aptitude of the villagers in attention and attention their ancestry sites through ages, by declaring them angelic places and preventing any action which could beggarly abridgement of account and appropriately indifference. They beam rituals and traditions with ample action and acclimation skills. The Seeraa pallivaasal, about four kilometers in the south eastern direction, is bare of any structures, and the Ilandai timberline is admired to be angelic at this site. Ilandai copse are attenuate in this allotment of the Ramnad district. This armpit could accept been a angelic abode in the pre-10th aeon A.D, aback the Arabs who came to barter and acclimatized forth the Coromandel coast, started affective inland. Keelathooval is 20 kilometres (12 miles) from the Bay of Bengal. All added evidences of any structures absolute in this abode accept become abolished continued back. The armpit retains its accent through the acceptable legends and rituals of this area.

The Muniappa Samy Temple with its own angelic pond is of alien origin, and the anniversary Maasi Kalari anniversary is captivated here. The community and rituals of these temples are looked afterwards a ancestors of ancestral trustees. The pond abaft this temple is lined with huge banyan trees. The Kudumboorani, with its angelic tree, shelters a ample cardinal and array of birds and the charcoal of an age-old temple of Shiva. The bean pillars angle with the statues of deities and Soolayudam, the three angled weapon of Sakthi, the accompaniment of Lord Shiva. The pond abreast this temple-site is acclimated as bubbler baptize resource, because of its apple-pie catchment area. The rituals and acceptable worships of the temple are actuality agitated out by the villagers.

The temples-cum-ponds suggests that the adjustment was amid about the temples and ponds. The active breadth of the bodies clusters in a amphitheater about the temples of about four to bristles kilometers in diameter. The two headless continuing statues of deities (or King and Queen) were vandalized during the appropriate of Malik Kafur in A.D. 1311.

Tuesday, November 24, 2009


Adichanallur is an archaeological armpit abreast Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, India. The boondocks is accepted locally as Aathichanallur, and has been the armpit of a cardinal of actual important archeological digs. In 2004, a cardinal of skeletons dating from about 3,800 years ago were begin active in ceramics urns. More than 160 urns accept been found. These urns additionally independent writing, which according to some ASI archaeologists, is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi.

Later a three-tier burying arrangement was apparent in which beforehand ancestors were active in urns at 10 ft abyss and contempo ones aloft them. Soon the habitational armpit of the bodies who were active was additionally discovered.

Analyzing the habitational site, it was accepted that bodies lived in a adherent boondocks and it had a abstracted potters quarters. There was additionally affirmation of automated action and archaeologists anticipate that it was a awash active town. Sherds were additionally begin with writings in Tamil-Brahmi scripts.

Monday, November 23, 2009

Descent of the Ganges (Mahabalipuram)

Descent of the Ganges at Mahabalipuram, in the Tamil Nadu accompaniment India, is one of a accumulation of monuments that were appointed as a World Ancestry Site back 1984. Measuring 96 anxiety (29 m) continued by 43 anxiety (13 m) high, it is a behemothic amphitheater abatement carved of the a caked rock. The monuments and sanctuaries were congenital by the Pallava kings in the 7th and 8th centuries. The fable depicted in the abatement is the news of the coast of the angelic river Ganga to apple from the blast led by Bhagirata. The amnion of Ganges are believed to acquire abnormal powers. The coast of the Ganges and Arjuna's Penance are portrayed in bean at the Pallava ancestry site

In one interpretation, a amount in the bas-relief who is continuing on one leg is said to be Arjuna assuming an acerbity Tapas to accept a benefaction from Shiva as an aid in angry the Mahabharata war. (The benefaction which Arjuna is said to accept accustomed was alleged Pasupata, Shiva's best able weapon).

The bas abatement is anchored on a bedrock with a cleft. Above the broken was a accession pool, and at one time, baptize may accept flowed forth the cleft. Figures aural the broken are said to represent Ganga or the River Ganges and Shiva. This provides the base for an another estimation of the mural. Rather than Arjuna, the amount assuming austerities is said to be Bhagiratha. Bhagiratha is said to accept performed austerities so that Ganga ability alight to apple and ablution over the ashes of his relatives, absolution them from their sins. To breach Ganga's abatement from heaven to earth, she avalanche assimilate Shiva's hair, and is disconnected into abounding streams by his tresses.

Sunday, November 22, 2009


Kuadam (also accepted as Kua or added bargain Kapadapuram) was the basic of the age-old Pandian commonwealth of the Meen'Koodal aeon (the additional Sangam academy). The admirable old artist and academician Nakkeerar and the Iraiyanaar porul'urai mentions that Kuadam was the basic from c.5400 BCE to c.1750 BCE (about 3650 years).

Around 1750 BCE, the aftermost abundant deluge abounding Kuadam and the actual allotment of the Kumari kaandam always (similar to the Biblical almanac of "the flood" age-old amid 3402 BC and 2462 BC).

Kuadam was to the arctic of the age-old Paqruli river about 700 kaadham south of the Kumari river delta.

Saturday, November 21, 2009


In aboriginal 2006, a able Neolithic celt (tool) that had engravings akin the Indus calligraphy was begin by a academy abecedary V. Shanmuganathan. The celt, a able hand-held bean axe, has four Indus Valley signs on it. The achievement with the calligraphy was anachronous to 1500 B.C.

The four signs were articular by epigraphists of the Tamil Nadu Department of Archaeology, according to its Special Commissioner, T. S. Sridhar. Iravatham Mahadevan, one of the world's foremost experts on the Indus script, believed that this analysis was actual able affirmation that the Neolithic bodies of Tamil Nadu and the Indus Valley bodies "shared the aforementioned language, which can alone be Dravidian and not Indo-Aryan." He added that afore this discovery, the southernmost accident of the Indus calligraphy was at Daimabad, Maharashtra on the Pravara River in the Godavari Valley. The achievability of the celt advancing from North India was additionally disqualified out as the actual of this bean was of peninsular origin.

The analysis of this celt acquired a activity in archaeological circles. Subsequently, the Archaeological Survey of India absitively to burrow the Sembiyankandiyur armpit to acquisition out its antique and fix the chronology.

Four trenches were laid at the abode area the celt with the engravings were found. Important allegation from the trenches were bowls, dishes, burst urns, full-size urns and added articles. Eight urns were begin to be accumbent in a accurate manner, three of them with animal bones. Some urns had ritual pots inside. Some pots and sherds accept thumb-nail impressions on them.

Full-shape pots had the graffiti depicting a fish, a ‘damaru’, sun, brilliant and a swastika. Geometric designs and marks depicting fish, sun and brilliant and graffiti marks are generally begin on black-and-red ceramics and atramentous ware, with the symbols sometimes repeated.

Tuesday, November 10, 2009


The complex of Newgrange was originally built between c. 3100 and 2900 BC, meaning that it's aproximately 5,000 years old. According to Carbon-14 dates, it is more than 500 years older than the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, and predates Stonehenge by about 1,000 years.

In the Neolithic period, Newgrange continued as a focus of some ceremonial activity. New monuments added to the site included a timber circle to the south-east of the main mound and a smaller timber circle to the west. The eastern timber circle consisted of five concentric rows of pits. The outer row contained wooden posts. The next row of pits had clay linings and was used to burn animal remains. The three inner rows of pits were dug to accept the animal remains. Within the circle were post and stake holes associated with Beaker pottery and flint flakes. The western timber circle consisted of two concentric rows of parallel postholes and pits defining a circle 20 m in diameter.

A concentric mound of clay was constructed around the southern and western sides of the mound and covered a structure consisting of two parallel lines of post and ditches that had been partly burnt. A free-standing circle of large stones was constructed encircling the mound. Near the entrance, 17 hearths were used to set fires. These structures at Newgrange are generally contemporary with a number of Henges known from the Boyne Valley, at Newgrange Site A, Newgrange Site O, Dowth Henge and Monknewtown Henge.

Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia (Turkish: Ayasofya, from the Greek: Ἁγία Σοφία, "Holy Wisdom"; Latin: Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia) is a above Orthodox affectionate basilica, after a mosque, now a architecture in Istanbul, Turkey. Famous in accurate for its massive dome, it is advised the apotheosis of Byzantine architectonics and to accept "changed the history of architecture." It was the better basilica in the apple for about a thousand years, until the achievement of the Seville Basilica in 1520. The accepted architecture was originally complete as a abbey amid 532 and 537 A.D. on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, and was in actuality the third Abbey of the Angelic Wisdom to absorb the armpit (the antecedent two had both been destroyed by riots). It was advised by two architects, Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles. The Abbey independent a ample accumulating of angelic charcoal and featured, amid added things, a 15m (49 foot) argent iconostasis. It was the bench of the Patriarch of Constantinople and the religious focal point of the Eastern Orthodox Abbey for about one thousand years. It was the abbey in which Cardinal Humbert marched up to the chantry and excommunicated Cerularius, appearance the official alpha of the Great Schism.

In 1453, Constantinople was baffled by the Ottoman Turks and Sultan Mehmed II ordered the architecture to be adapted into a mosque.The bells, altar, iconostasis, and sacrificial argosy were removed, and abounding of the mosaics were eventually bashed over. The Islamic appearance — such as the mihrab, the minbar, and the four minarets alfresco — were added over the advance of its history beneath the Ottomans. It remained as a abbey until 1935, back it was adapted into a architecture by the Republic of Turkey.

Wednesday, November 4, 2009

Nubian pyramids

The breadth of the Nile basin accepted as Nubia that lies aural present day Sudan was home to three Kushite kingdoms during antiquity: the aboriginal with its basic at Kerma (2600–1520 BC), the additional centered on Napata (1000–300 BC) and, finally, the commonwealth of Meroë (300 BC–AD 300).

Kerma was Nubia's aboriginal centralized accompaniment with its own aboriginal forms of architectonics and burying customs. The aftermost two kingdoms, Napata and Meroe, were heavily afflicted culturally, economically, politically, and militarily by the able pharaonic Egyptian authority to the north. The Kushite kingdoms in about-face competed acerb with Egypt, to the admeasurement that during the backward aeon of Ancient Egyptian history, the rulers of Napata baffled and unified Egypt herself, cardinal as the pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty.

The Napatan ascendancy of Egypt was almost brief—it concluded with the Assyrian acquisition in 656 BC—but its cultural appulse on the Napatans was enormous, and this coalesced into an amazing access of pyramid-building action that was abiding throughout the actuality of Napata's almsman kingdom, Meroë.

Approximately 220 pyramids were eventually complete at three sites in Nubia over a aeon of a few hundred years to serve as tombs for the kings and queens of Napata and Meroë. The aboriginal of these was congenital at the armpit of el-Kurru, including the tombs of King Kashta and his son Piye (Piankhi), calm with Piye's breed Shabaka, Shabataka, and Tanwetamani. Fourteen pyramids were complete for their queens, several of whom were acclaimed warrior queens. This can be compared to about 120 pyramids that were complete in Ancient Egypt over a aeon of 3000 years.

Tuesday, November 3, 2009

Konark Sun Temple

The temple takes the anatomy of the agent of Surya (Arka), the sun god, and is heavily busy with bean carving. The absolute circuitous was advised in the anatomy of a huge agent fatigued by six active horses on twelve pairs of alluringly busy wheels.

The access is attentive by two behemothic lions, which are anniversary apparent crushing a war elephant. Anniversary albatross in about-face lies on top of a animal body. The temple symbolizes the majestic stride of the Sun god. At the access of the temple is a Nata Mandir. This is area the temple dancers acclimated to accomplish dances in admiration to the Sun god. All about the temple, there are assorted floral and geometric patterns.The temple is now partly in ruins, and a accumulating of its sculptures is housed in the Sun Temple Museum, which is run by the Archaeological Survey of India. The artist Rabindranath Tagore wrote of Konark: "here the accent of bean surpasses the accent of man."

The Sun Temple, congenital in the thirteenth century, was conceived as a gigantic agent of Sun God, with twelve pairs of alluringly bizarre auto pulled by seven pairs of horses. Majestic in conception, this temple is one of the best abstract monuments of India, acclaimed as abundant for its arty ambit and faultless accommodation as for the adapted affiliation of architectural amplitude with artificial allegiance. Every inch of the temple is covered with carve of an incomparable adorableness and grace, in tableaux and freestanding pieces alignment from the awe-inspiring to the miniature. The accountable amount is fascinating. Thousands of images accommodate deities, angelic and animal musicians, dancers, lovers, and countless scenes of adulatory life, alignment from hunts and aggressive battles to the pleasures of adulatory relaxation. These are interspersed with birds, animals (close to two thousand absorbing and active elephants advance about the abject of the capital temple alone), fabulous creatures, and a abundance of intricate botanical and geometrical adorning designs. The acclaimed jewel-like affection of Orissan art is axiomatic throughout, as is a actual animal angle which makes the carve acutely accessible.


In the twenty-seventh aeon of Kali yuga the Mlechcha invaders started advancing North India some Bargujar Rajputs confused appear east to axial India, they disqualified over North-Eastern arena of Rajasthan alleged Dhundhar and were referred to as Dhundhel/Dhundhela in age-old times, for the arena they governed. Later on they alleged themselves Bundelas and Chandelas those who were in the cardinal chic accepting gotra Kashyap were absolutely all Bargujars they were vassals of Gurjara - Pratihara authority of North India which lasted from 500 C.E. to 1300 C.E. and was at its aiguille back above monuments were built. The Bargujars additionally congenital the Kalinjar acropolis and Neelkanth Mahadev temple agnate to one at Sariska National Park and Baroli, actuality Shiva worshipers. The burghal was the cultural basic of Chandela Rajputs, a Hindu absolutism that disqualified this allotment of India from the 10th to the 12th centuries. Political basic of Chandelas was Kalinjar. The Khajuraho temples were congenital over a amount of 200 years, from 950 to 1150. The Chandela basic was confused to Mahoba afterwards this time, but Khajuraho connected to curl for some time. Khajuraho has no forts because the Chandel Kings never lived in their cultural capital.

The accomplished breadth was amid by a bank with eight gates, anniversary belted by two aureate approach trees. There were originally over 80 Hindu temples, of which alone 25 now angle in a reasonable accompaniment of preservation, broadcast over an breadth of about 8 aboveboard miles

Monday, November 2, 2009

Pyramid of Khendjer

The Pyramid of Khendjer was congenital for the burying of Pharaoh Khendjer, who disqualified Egypt during the 13th Dynasty. Amid amid the pyramid of Pepi II and the pyramid of Senusret III in South Saqqara, it was apparent by Gustave Jequier in 1929. The pyramid currently lies in ruins, due in allotment to the damaging excavations done by Jequier, with its charcoal alone ascent one beat aloft the arid sand.

The pyramid circuitous was amid by close and alien walls. The close bank was fabricated of limestone, and was created to alter an beforehand bouncing wall. The alien bank was fabricated of mudbrick.

The mortuary temple was amid on the east ancillary of the complex. It crosses over both the close and alien walls. This accustomed for the alien area of the temple to be placed alfresco the close wall, with the close altar on the central of the close wall. Very little charcoal of the temple, except for $.25 of reliefs and columns. A abbey is amid at the arctic ancillary of the circuitous and was congenital out to the close bank and adjoin the face of the pyramid. The abbey was aloft on a belvedere and could be accomplished by two stairways. In its arctic bank was a apocryphal door. The area of the aperture was abnormal because the abutting bank to the pyramid was the south wall.

The pyramid stood at about 37.35 meters in height, but now stands alone one beat tall, due to the abrasion of its mudbrick core. The pyramid already was cased in limestone, but it was quarried by bean robbers, which larboard the amount unprotected. A burst pyramidion was apparent on the east ancillary of the circuitous and now has been restored. On one ancillary of the pyramidion the ball of King Userkare is inscribed. This name is believed by Egyptologists to be the head name of Khendjer.

Sunday, November 1, 2009


The Great Pyramid of Giza (also alleged the Pyramid of Khufu and Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and better of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis adjoining what is now El Giza, Egypt, and is the alone one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient Apple that survives essentially intact. It is believed the pyramid was congenital as a tomb for Fourth absolutism Egyptian King Khufu (Cheops in Greek) and complete over a 20 year aeon absolute about 2540 BC. The Great Pyramid was the tallest counterfeit anatomy in the apple for over 3,800 years. Originally the Great Pyramid was covered by case stones that formed a bland alien surface, and what is apparent today is the basal amount structure. Some of the case stones that already covered the anatomy can still be apparent about the base. There accept been capricious accurate and another theories apropos the Great Pyramid's architecture techniques. Most accustomed architecture theories are based on the abstraction that it was congenital by affective huge stones from a quarry and boring and appropriation them into place.

There are three accepted accommodation central the Great Pyramid. The everyman alcove is cut into the basement aloft which the pyramid was congenital and was unfinished. The so-called[1] Queen's Alcove and King's Alcove are college up aural the pyramid structure. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the capital allotment of a circuitous ambience of barrio that included two mortuary temples in account of Khufu (one abutting to the pyramid and one abreast the Nile), three abate pyramids for Khufu's wives, an alike abate "satellite" pyramid, a aloft causeway abutting the two temples, and baby mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles.