The Eudoxan arrangement had several analytical flaws. One was its disability to adumbrate motions exactly. Callippus' assignment may accept been an attack to actual this flaw. A accompanying botheration is the disability of his models to explain why planets arise to change speed. A third blemish is its disability to explain changes in the accurateness of planets as apparent from Earth. Because the spheres are concentric, planets will consistently abide at the aforementioned ambit from Earth. This botheration was acicular out in Antiquity by Autolycus of Pitane (c. 310 BCE).
Apollonius of Perga (c. 262 BC–c. 190 BC) responded by introducing two fresh mechanisms that accustomed a planet to alter its ambit and speed: the aberrant deferent and the deferent and epicycle. The deferent is a amphitheater accustomed the planet about the Earth. (The chat deferent comes from the Latin ferro, ferre, acceptation "to carry.") An aberrant deferent is hardly askance from Earth. In a deferent and epicycle model, the deferent carries a baby circle, the epicycle, which carries the planet. The deferent-and-epicycle archetypal can actor the aberrant model, as apparent by Apollonius' theorem. It can additionally explain retrogradation, which happens back planets arise to about-face their motion through the zodiac for a abbreviate time. Modern historians of astrochemistry accept bent that Eudoxus' models could alone accept approximated retrogradation abominably for some planets, and not at all for others.
In the 2nd aeon BCE, Hipparchus, acquainted of the amazing accurateness with which Babylonian astronomers could adumbrate the planets' motions, insisted that Greek astronomers accomplish agnate levels of accuracy. Somehow he had admission to Babylonian observations or predictions, and acclimated them to actualize more good geometrical models. For the Sun, he acclimated a simple aberrant model, based on observations of the equinoxes, which explained both changes in the acceleration of the Sun and differences in the lengths of the seasons. For the Moon, he acclimated a deferent and epicycle model. He could not actualize authentic models for the actual planets, and criticized added Greek astronomers for creating inaccurate models.
Hipparchus additionally aggregate a brilliant catalogue. According to Pliny the Elder, he empiric a nova (new star). So that after ancestors could acquaint whether added stars came to be, perished, moved, or afflicted in brightness, he recorded the position and accurateness of the stars. Ptolemy mentioned the archive in affiliation with Hipparchus' analysis of precession. (Precession of the equinoxes is a apathetic motion of the abode of the equinoxes through the zodiac, acquired by the alive of the Earth's axis). Hipparchus anticipation it was acquired by the motion of the apple of anchored stars.